Cascais: Memories in Stone and Lime (1364-2014)

Fortification layout

The oval layout of the fortification was later depicted by Georg Braun and Frans Hogenbe...

Castle
Panoramic view of Cascais
Religious Architecture - Church of Nossa Senhora da Assunção

In 1527 around 600 to 1 000 people lived in the town and between 1 200 and 1 900 in the ...

Religious Architecture - Misericórdia Church

Although the date of its foundation is not known, the small chapel dedicated to Santo An...

Religious Architecture - Misericórdia Church
Religious Architecture - Misericórdia Church
Religious Architecture - Nossa Senhora da Guia Hermitage

Although the tombstone of António Ribeiro da Fonseca lies under the triumphal arch of thi...

Religious Architecture - Nossa Senhora da Guia Hermitage
Religious Architecture - Nossa Senhora da Guia Hermitage
Religious Architecture - Church and Convent of Santo António of Estoril

The convent was built in the mid 16th century, on land donated in 1527, to Ordem de S. F...

Religious Architecture - Church and Convent of Santo António of Estoril
Religious Architecture - Church and Convent of Santo António of Estoril
Religious Architecture - Church of S. Domingos de Rana

Dedicated to S. Domingos de Gusmão (St. Dominic of Gusmão), the old church was referred ...

Religious Architecture - Church of S. Domingos de Rana
Religious Architecture - Church of S. Domingos de Rana
Religious Architecture - Church of S. Vicente de Alcabideche

This church has been part of Alcabideche since the Early Middle Ages, as re ected in the...

Religious Architecture - Church of S. Vicente de Alcabideche
Religious Architecture - Church of S. Vicente de Alcabideche
Religious Architecture - Church of Nossa Senhora dos Remédios

In honour of Nossa Senhora dos Remédios, this church with a 17th century façade has an unusual layout, which contra...

Religious Architecture - Church of Nossa Senhora dos Remédios
Religious Architecture - Church of Nossa Senhora dos Remédios
Religious Architecture - Convent of Nossa Senhora da Piedade

The chapel of the Founder or the Proto-Patriarch of the Convent of the Carmelitas Descal...

Religious Architecture - Convent of Nossa Senhora da Piedade
Fortresses

Recognising that the densely populated castle no longer ful lled its military purpose fu...

Fortress of Nossa Senhora da Luz
Fortress of Santo António da Barra
Fortress of Santo António da Barra
Fortress of Santo António da Barra
Fortresses
Fortresses

After the restoration of independence in 1640, the Portuguese invested in the fortresses...

Fortresses

On 1st November 1755, a violent earthquake devastated the county of Cascais. According t...

Vernacular Architecture

The privileged geographical location of Cascais, which became a shing port and safe harbou...

Vernacular Architecture
Vernacular Architecture
Farms and Palaces - Barão Farm

This farm dating back to the 18th century was founded by Jacinto Isidoro de Sousa. His wid...

Farms and Palaces - Barão Farm
Farms and Palaces - Palace of Condes da Guarda

This palace was built by D. Inês Antónia da Cunha, in the late 18th century, and is on...

Farms and Palaces - Palace of Condes da Guarda
Farms and Palaces
Farms and Palaces - Cascais Palace

The Royal Family’s stay became regular after 1870 after part of the Citadel was adapte...

Farms and Palaces - Cascais Palace

The project to adapt the Cidadela de Cascais (Cascais Citadel) as a seasonal residence f...

Farms and Palaces - Cascais Palace
Theatre and Royal Palace

From the mid-19th century, the fashion of sea bathing, based on the idea it was therapeuti...

Theatre and Royal Palace
Summer Architecture - Palmela House

Given the shortage of housing with the conditions required by summer season tourists, ac...

Summer Architecture - Palmela House
Summer Architecture - Santa Maria House

Also ordered to be built by Jorge O’Neill in 1902, near the Farol de Santa Narta (Santa ...

Summer Architecture - S. Sebastião Tower

This small palace, built at the behest of Jorge O’Neill in the early 20th century, is ...

Cascais: Memories in Stone and Lime (1364-2014)

The origin of the name Cascais has been lost in time, although, according to etymologist José Leite de Vasconcelos, it comes from the noun cascal referring to the existence of lots of shells and crustacean limestone debris near the small fishing that the county was later named after. Nestled between Sintra, Oeiras and the Atlantic Ocean, Cascais stretches out over small hills and valleys, from the mountains down to its coast of beaches and cliffs between Carcavelos and Cascais. From the town to Guincho the coast is generally high, rocky and eroded and further along gives way to vast sandy beaches and dunes. Today, the county of Cascais has an area of 97.4 Km2, and is made up of of the parishes of Alcabideche and S. Domingos de Rana and the unions of the parishes of Cascais and Estoril and also of Carcavelos and Parede. 

 

GENERATION AFTER GENERATION, CASCAIS HAS MANAGED TO RESPECT ITS MEMORIES. THIS IS WHY IT IS A RENOWNED NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL SUCCESS AND ITS EXTRAORDINARY ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE MUST BE SHOWCASED! 

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Fortification layout
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The oval layout of the fortification was later depicted by Georg Braun and Frans Hogenberg in 1572 in the first volume of Civitates Orbis Terrarum, in a beautiful etching that appears to depict the town at the beginning of the century. The castle’s seven towers were supported next to Praia da Ribeira by a barbican that defended the only gate in the wall included in the picture, although there must have been others that were only shown in plans from the end of that century. Two buildings were included in the south tower, probably the houses of the Lord of Cascais. These would later become the palace that King D. Filipe I enjoyed so much when he visited in 1581. The castle and palace were badly affected by the 1755 earthquake and by subsequent urban development. To this day, however, you can see some parts of the old wall, whose initial perimeter is outlined in current cartography.

Castle
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Panoramic view of Cascais
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Religious Architecture - Church of Nossa Senhora da Assunção
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In 1527 around 600 to 1 000 people lived in the town and between 1 200 and 1 900 in the rest of the county. Among the architectural evidence of that era the religious buildings are the most obvious due to their grandeur, wealth and history. Although often rebuilt or changed at later dates they include Igreja de Nossa Senhora da Assunção (Church of Nossa Senhora da Assunção) and Capela de S. Sebastião (Chapel of São Sebastião), in Cascais. The architectural elements reused in Igreja de S. Vicente de Alcabideche (Church of S. Vicente de Alcabideche) stand testimony to its ancient foundation, as do the latch vaults of Igreja de S. Domingos de Rana (Church of S. Domingos de Rana). It is also worth mentioning Capela de Nossa Senhora da Conceição da Abóboda (Chapel of Nossa Senhora da Conceição of Abóboda), which preserves the more beautiful armoured stone of the county, founded in 1529, as well as the Igreja e Convento de Santo António do Estoril (Church and Convent of Santo António do Estoril), founded in 1527 by the Franciscan friars on the chapel of S. Roque, with a tombstone of Roque Lopes, pilot of the Route to the Indies and other grave stones dating from the late 16th century. The Ermida de Nossa Senhora da Guia (Chapel of Nossa Senhora da Guia) is another example of the 16th century religious architecture of the council, erected next to the Lighthouse which was already working in 1537, to warn navigators of the dangers of the coast. This structure, mentioned by Damião de Góis, in 1554, thus became, one of the icons of the coast of Cascais, whose inlet was described as the “place where the cargo ships, anchored in large and secure ports, wait for the tide and monsoon”, despite the stories of shipwrecks which are very much part of the history of the region... During this period, the strengthening of social bonds between the community led to the founding of brotherhoods and sisterhoods acting as mutual aid as- sociations, of material and/or spiritual nature, of which Santa Casa da Misericór- dia of Cascais, founded on 11th June, 1551, is the most important example in the county. To this end, the fraternity built a hospital, next to Igreja da Misericórdia (Misericórdia Church), which remained in activity until 1942, on the occasion of the inauguration of the Condes de Castro Guimarães Hospital. In 1594 the construction of Convento de Nossa Senhora da Piedade (Convent of Nossa Senhora da Piedade) in Cascais, was initiated, under the patronage of Lord of Cascais, D. António de Castro, 4th Count of Monsanto, and his wife, D. Inês Pi- mentel. Finally, Igreja de Nossa Senhora dos Remédios (Church of Nossa Senhora dos Remédios) in Carcavelos should be noted. Founded before the earthquake of 1755, it is another jewel of the county’s religious architecture, continuing to be marked by the ancient urban fabric of the town. Although the actual date of its foundation is unknown, this is the town’s most emblematic church and the one that relates most to its medieval past, as evidenced by the disc-shaped steles rescued from its churchyard. Of the presumable wealth that the church boasted in the 16th century, there is a remarkable set of old paintings, from c. 1520-25, attributable to the Master of Lourinhã, made up of four “primitive” paintings on oak. Certainly of the old main altarpiece, depicting the Nativity, the Adoration of the Magi, the Virgin of the Annunciation and the Archangel Gabriel are from this time. The church also has a number of notable 16th century paintings created by Josefa d’Óbidos between 1672 and 1673 for Convento da Piedade (Piedade Convent), which were moved to the main church after the abolition of the convents, and the Last Supper, painted by Pedro Alexandrino de Carvalho for the Capela do Santíssimo Sacramento (Santíssimo Sacramento Chapel), the brotherhood that funded reconstruction of the church after the 1755 earthquake. Another of the church’s treasures is the complete tile covering of the south sacristy walls, dating from 1720 and stylistically attributed to the Master P.M.P. Its panels, which are thematically unique and very learned, depict themes from the Old Testa- ment, taken from Exodus, the Book of Kings and the Book of Joshua, such as the Crossing of the Red Sea and the Ark of the Covenant. The strong compositions must be from one of the main tile production workshops in Lisbon of the reign of King D. João V, and are evidence of the religious fervour and relative nancial af uence of the local shing community, which left evidence of its on a placard above the sacristy doorway. On the nave ceiling the highlight is the central panel, with a painting of The Assumption of Our Lady, created by José Malhoa, dated 1900. The work of Pereira Cão is also represented here in a collection of tiles produced in 1908.

Religious Architecture - Misericórdia Church
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Although the date of its foundation is not known, the small chapel dedicated to Santo André (St. Andrew), lined with tiles, which houses the baptismal font, has a tombstone dated 1622. Its antiquity is also attested by the four boards that make up the 16th century altarpiece, from 1590, of the main chapel of the early church, attributed to the painter Cristóvão Vaz: Christ carrying the cross, Resurrection, Our Lady of Mercy and Visitation. In the main chapel, adorned with marbled paint, one can see the painting of the brotherhood’s patron: Nossa Senhora dos Anjos (Our Lady of the Angels), a sculpture in polychrome wood from the late 17th century. Due to the destruction caused by the 1755 earthquake, the building was rebuilt between 1759 and 1781, however, the two side towers of the facade were never nished.

Religious Architecture - Misericórdia Church
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Religious Architecture - Misericórdia Church
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Religious Architecture - Nossa Senhora da Guia Hermitage
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Although the tombstone of António Ribeiro da Fonseca lies under the triumphal arch of this chapel, dated 1577, this building is, of course, older, as evidenced by many Manueline architectural elements. These include the entrance preceded by a porch with three round arches. The main chapel has a remarkable 18th century tile covering up to the height of the windows, representing two scenes: The Birth of Christ and The Assumption of the Virgin. The side altars are covered with 16th century painted tiles, on which are exhibited two paintings on wood depicting the Adoration of the Shepherds and the Adoration of the Magi, by Cristóvão Vaz, which are part of the 16th century altarpiece.

Religious Architecture - Nossa Senhora da Guia Hermitage
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Religious Architecture - Nossa Senhora da Guia Hermitage
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Religious Architecture - Church and Convent of Santo António of Estoril
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The convent was built in the mid 16th century, on land donated in 1527, to Ordem de S. Francisco (Order of Saint Francis), by Luís da Maia. Initially, the church had a single nave. It was later enriched with three altars, notably the one dedicated to Nossa Senhora da Boa Nova. The destruction caused by the 1755 earthquake led to reconstruction of the entire building. Three years later the church’s high altar was completed, as well as the nave, which included three large south-facing windows. In the interior the highlight is the rich tile collection along with two panels anking the door of the church, from the early Rococo period, depicting Saint Anthony’s life. The ceiling, painted by Carlos Bonvalot in 1927, after a re in the church.

Religious Architecture - Church and Convent of Santo António of Estoril
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Religious Architecture - Church and Convent of Santo António of Estoril
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Religious Architecture - Church of S. Domingos de Rana
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Dedicated to S. Domingos de Gusmão (St. Dominic of Gusmão), the old church was referred to as “sacred from time immemorial,” by Friar Luís de Sousa, in 1623. The destruction caused by the 1755 earthquake led to construction of the current church, which was only completed in 1838, the date inscribed on its bell tower. It was a large building and its architecture was consistent with its time and characterised by simple and austere lines, whose decorative details were reserved for the main facade. The ceiling of the church was decorated with a painting by Pedro Alexandrino de Carvalho, which was lost as a result of work carried out in 1964. The most notable works in the church’s remarkable collection include a set of late Mannerist paintings, which are unique in the county, as well as the large panel of the main chapel depicting the Last Supper, created by Pedro Alexandrino de Carvalho.

Religious Architecture - Church of S. Domingos de Rana
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Religious Architecture - Church of S. Domingos de Rana
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Religious Architecture - Church of S. Vicente de Alcabideche
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This church has been part of Alcabideche since the Early Middle Ages, as re ected in the stelae featured on the headstones found in the ancient church cemetery that was partially excavated. The present church is the result of a reconstruction thought to have started in 1759 - the date inscribed on the main door - and must have been completed in 1780, the year to which the Capela das Almas (Almas Chapel) dates. The simplicity of the church is in contrast to the importance of its artistic treasures including the images of Santiago (St. James), S. Sebastião (St. Sebastian) and S. João (St. John), from the late medieval period and the church’s famous treasure built up over centuries in honour of Nossa Senhora do Cabo. This includes a 15th century processional cross, which is now kept at Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga (National Museum of Ancient Art).

Religious Architecture - Church of S. Vicente de Alcabideche
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Religious Architecture - Church of S. Vicente de Alcabideche
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Religious Architecture - Church of Nossa Senhora dos Remédios
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In honour of Nossa Senhora dos Remédios, this church with a 17th century façade has an unusual layout, which contradicts the canonical orientation to the west. It features tile panels, partially by the hand of painter Gabriel del Barco, in 1690, which are considered the most striking example of Hindu in uence in Portuguese Baroque tiling. Plundered of some of its assets during the First Republic, the exceptional tile collection only remained in place because the authorities intervened in 1918. Among its religious artefacts, the Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga (National Museum of Ancient Art) now houses a valuable 18th century monstrance from the church.

Religious Architecture - Church of Nossa Senhora dos Remédios
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Religious Architecture - Church of Nossa Senhora dos Remédios
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Religious Architecture - Convent of Nossa Senhora da Piedade
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The chapel of the Founder or the Proto-Patriarch of the Convent of the Carmelitas Descalços (Barefoot Carmelites), completed in 1641, is the best-preserved part of the original building. The main church also preserves the Latin cross plan, with a slightly protruding transept and a shallow main chapel. The convent buildings have been changed over time, particularly in terms of the cloister and the speci c community spaces into which they converged, and which are only identi able in the archaeological record. They were badly damaged by the 1755 earthquake, continued to house religious people until 1834, when the convents were abolished. Just before 1873, both the building and the extensive westward fence came under the possession of the Viscounts of Gandarinha, who built vacation homes based on pre-existing convent structures. The estate, which ahs been county property since 1977, was reclassi ed to create the Centro Cultural de Cascais (Cascais Cultural Centre) in 2000, designed by architect Jorge Silva.

Religious Architecture - Convent of Nossa Senhora da Piedade
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Fortresses
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Recognising that the densely populated castle no longer ful lled its military purpose functions, in 1488 at Ponta do Salmodo, King D. João II built “Torre de Cascais (Cascais Tower), with its cellar full of heavy artillery,” and it soon became the town’s main fortress. This structure, a blend of medieval castle and bulwarked fortress, was most valued for its location near the sea, which was why it became known as the Torre de Santo António (Tower of Santo António), as the Estoril Coast was then known. In the early morning of 30th July, 1580, the Spanish army, commanded by the Duke of Alba, landed about 1 500 men between Cape Sanxete and Guia, attacking Cascais, to conquer Lisbon and place Filipe II on the Portuguese throne. The fortress that defended the town was taken the next day, amongst uncontrolled pillaging. On 2nd August, imprisoned D. Diogo de Meneses, the supreme general of the Portuguese troops nominated by D. António, Prior of Crato, was beheaded in Cascais, in a display to show the Portuguese the fate of the adversaries of the future monarch... Aware of the region’s defensive weaknesses, King D. Filipe I of Portugal ordered a survey of Cascais and a coastal chart as far as S. Julião da Barra to be drawn up. These drawings were intended to strengthen the defensive capacities of the Torre de Cascais (Cascais Tower), and its forti cation turned it in the late 16th century, into the Fortaleza de Nossa Senhora da Luz (Fortress of Nossa Senhora da Luz). The fortress is of a triangular shape, unusual in Portugal, which was became part of Cidadela de Cascais (Cascais Citadel) after 1640. The Forte de Santo António da Barra (Fortress of Santo António da Barra) was also built, within a short distance of the future S. João do Estoril, based on a design by Casale in 1590.

Fortress of Nossa Senhora da Luz
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Fortress of Santo António da Barra
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Fortress of Santo António da Barra
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Fortress of Santo António da Barra
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Fortresses
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Fortresses
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After the restoration of independence in 1640, the Portuguese invested in the fortresses of the region which cost them the throne for six decades. Under the direction of D. António Luís de Meneses, Count of Cantanhede - who was in charge of the defence of the Barra do Tejo (Tagus Barra), main capital access door - the existing fortresses were extended and restored, restoring more than a dozen bulwarks between Guincho and Carcavelos, of which forts of S. Jorge de Oitavos and Santa Marta, today turned into a museum are important examples. Among the structures built the Cidadela de Cascais (Cascais Citadel) must be highlighted defence of this strategic coastal point. Although the extension of the previous project goes back to the lipino period, it only seems to gain strength from 1641, under the direction of Simão Mateus and after Philipe Guitau, who succeeded João Pascásio Cosmander and Nicolau de Langres. However in 1675 its walls were still under construction, the set of new fortresses which were then decided to be built were mainly achieved by the end of the 1640s, in view of the structural simplicity adopted.

Fortresses
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On 1st November 1755, a violent earthquake devastated the county of Cascais. According to Friar Antonio do Espírito Santo, a religious man who lived in the Convent of Piedade, who described the effects of the cataclysm in the village, the earthquake was felt for nine minutes and transformed “the great town into a callous and cold corpse of what had been and a shattered scene of what it once was.” In 1758, the Curate of the Resurrection of Christ, António Inácio da Costa Godinho, did not hesitate to say that “this was the land that experienced the greatest ruin,” as all the buildings in the county were affected by the earthquake. These included the Churches of Ressurreição, Assunção and Misericórdia and the Convent of Nossa Senhora da Misericórdia, in Cascais, the convent of Santo António, in Estoril, and the Churches of S. Domingos de Rana, S. Vicente de Alcabideche and Nossa Senhora dos Remédios, in Carcavelos. In fact, not even the places of worship escaped the carnage that many believed to have been a divine punishment. The last traces of destruction caused by this earthquake only nally disappeared from the urban fabric in the rst quarter of the 20th century, when the nal section of the ruins of the Palácio dos Marqueses de Cascais (Palace of the Marquises of Cascais) gave rise to the Casa do Conde de Monte Real (House of the Count of Monte Real), next to the bend of Avenida D. Carlos I.

Vernacular Architecture
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The privileged geographical location of Cascais, which became a shing port and safe harbour as well as a port for taking on fresh supplies on a regional scale, turned the shermen into one of the symbols of the county. However, for centuries, agriculture was the main activity of its inhabitants, which even today can be seen through facilities such as water mills and mills, which the poet Ibn Mucana mentioned in Alcabideche, in the 11th century. Farm work is associated with the gure of the saloio, heir to the Arab tradition of working the land, which developed a culture of its own, apparent in their cus- toms, beliefs, language and clothing, which also marked the county’s landscape giving rise to a so-called saloia or people’s architecture, and to this day a signi cant number of these houses are still apparent in Manique de Baixo. Solidly built in stone these square homes are usually crowned with a Moorish roof. Whitewashed, with one or two oors or turreted they had a patio nearly always surrounded by dry stone or mortared walls. At the time stone quarrying and cutting were the occupation of a substantial part of the population based on the county’s geological wealth that includes “marbles” known as apinhoado, busano and bastardo and the famous limestone known as Cascais azulino. Vines were the most important crop in the County, due to the renowned Carcavelos wine, internationally known since at least the late 18th century and the rst known export to England in 1673. Among the main farms dedicated to its production were Quinta do Barão (Barão Farm), Nova de Santo António, Alagoa, Bela Vista, Cartaxeira, Lameiro, Pesos, Ribeira, Chaínhos and Samarra. On 30th November 1807 Cascais was occupied by the French troops of Junot, led by the Baron Maurin, who remained here until 2nd September of the following year. Following the signing of the Sintra Treaty, that according to tradition was actually tradition negotiated in Cascais – possibly in the building that was later named Palace of Condes da Guarda – the British eet advanced along the Tagus, to take over the fortresses of Cascais, S. Julião da Barra and Bugio. The primitive nucleus of the town kept its urban fabric almost unchanged since the 15th century until the present time. Despite the expansion that we have witnessed in the 16th and 17th until the fateful year of 1755, after this date there was a period of lethargy, which was accentuated by the extinction of the reli- gious orders and the withdrawal of the 19 Infantry Regiment. The same must have occurred in the places of the interior of the County, but they were certainly less affected by the destruction caused by the earthquake, having been able to ensure the maintenance of traditional activities that since the Middle Ages are their basis for subsistence.

Vernacular Architecture
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Vernacular Architecture
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Farms and Palaces - Barão Farm
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This farm dating back to the 18th century was founded by Jacinto Isidoro de Sousa. His widow sold the property in 1794 to the Baron of Mossâmedes and the farm was notable for its production of the famous wine of Carcavelos. The manor, which dates from the same era, saw successive refurbishments, and a particularly major one in 1944. However its architecture remained unchanged as can be seen in its magni cent tile panels of different styles, which mark the various eras in which work was carried out. With three oors and doors and windows that do not respect the absolute symmetry of the rising elevation, the house is particularly interesting in the south elevation, which has two ights of stairs that converge at a porch with access to the rst oor. The porch is framed by tile panels with polychrome mouldings of Rococo shell motifs and gurative scenes in blue and white. Inside there are tiles of various epochs and styles and two notable panels where grains are highlighted in yellow, within a room entirely dedicated to the theme of the work. The garden to the west of the Manor House has a variety of plant species, of which several are over a hundred years old and that transform this property into a unique space for enjoyment and leisure. over a hundred years old and that transform this property into a unique space for enjoyment and leisure.

Farms and Palaces - Barão Farm
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Farms and Palaces - Palace of Condes da Guarda
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This palace was built by D. Inês Antónia da Cunha, in the late 18th century, and is one of Cascais’ most emblematic buildings. It is the only piece of secular architecture in Portugal in which religious neoclassical themed panels were applied to its facades. They include the Four Evangelists – St. Mark and St. Matthew, on the main façade and St. Luke and St. John, on the side facade – produced in the Real Fábrica de Louça do Rato (Royal Dishware Factory of Rato) and painted by Francisco de Paula e Oliveira. The building, later known as the Palace of Condes da Guarda as it belonged to this family in the 19th century, would be used for other purposes after its sale in 1917. It served as a casino and lodged several shops and a post of ce, until Cascais Town Hall was set up there in 1940. The work carried out to accommodate the Town Hall included its decoration with tiles painted by Eduardo Leite and produced in the Fábrica de Cerâmica Viúva Lamego (Viúva Lamego Ceramics Factory), recreating a Baroque style, with rural and maritime scenes. The last 18th century staircase decoration of the earlier building was maintained, including the magni cent panel with a gure of invitation. In 1966, the palace was extended, occupying the area where the famous seafood restaurant Marisqueira was located.

Farms and Palaces - Palace of Condes da Guarda
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Farms and Palaces
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Farms and Palaces - Cascais Palace
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The Royal Family’s stay became regular after 1870 after part of the Citadel was adapted into the unpretentious Paço de Cascais (Cascais Palace) to where the Court was moved in mid-September. Thanks to this seasonal presence, the town became the leisure capital of Portugal, introducing and promoting sports such as sailing, rowing, swimming, tennis and football. It was also a pioneer in the dissemination of technological advances as was the case for example in 1878 when the rst public electric lighting demonstration in Portugal was held at the Citadel, on the occasion of the Prince D. Carlos’ birthday.

Farms and Palaces - Cascais Palace
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The project to adapt the Cidadela de Cascais (Cascais Citadel) as a seasonal residence for the Portuguese Royal Family, from 1870, was awarded to Joaquim Possidónio Narciso da Silva. To carry it out the architect drew up a connection between Casas do Governador da Cidadela (Houses of the Citadel Governor) and Pavilhão de Sta. Catarina (St. Catarina Pavilion), which bordered the Praça de Armas (Arms Plaza), resizing rooms, decorating halls and salons and creating a banquet hall and a direct link to the high choir of the Capela de Nossa Senhora da Vitória (Chapel of Nossa Senhora da Vitória). Although modest in sise and without the luxuries of other royal palaces, the Cascais Palace had some re nement, especially in its nishes, the use of exceptional materials, and particularly of exotic woods. King D. Luís died in 1889, in the Cascais Palace and was succeeded by King. D. Carlos, who made signi cant changes to the building. He set up the rst Portuguese marine biology laboratory there in 1896, adding a third oor in 1902 for that purpose above the old Santa Catarina Pavilion, which he transformed into his private quarters. After the establishment of the Republic, the Palace started receiving the Presidents of the Republic, and was even the of cial residence of President Óscar Carmona from 1928 to 1945. Carmona ordered work to be carried out several times, including transforming the east-facing terrace into a Winter Garden designed by Duarte Pacheco. After many years of disuse and already in an advanced state of disrepair the Palace underwent in-depth refurbish- ment and restoration between 2007 and 2008, designed by architect Pedro Vaz. The Palace is now an of cial residence of the Portuguese President. Its state and other history- lled rooms are open to guided tours offered by Museu da Presidência da República (Museum of the Presidency).

Farms and Palaces - Cascais Palace
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Theatre and Royal Palace
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From the mid-19th century, the fashion of sea bathing, based on the idea it was therapeutic, made Cascais’ beaches a favourite destination of the wealthier classes, and later became a leisure activity, as had happened in a number of beach resorts of Europe. However, the real discovery of the area’s coast was mainly due to reconstruction of the road to Oeiras, between 1859 and 1864, which made access to Lisbon easier, and the road to Sintra, completed in 1868. Visiting Cascais became an elitist pastime and for the rst time in September 1867 it was granted the status of the beach of the Court due to Queen D. Maria Pia’s liking for it and, later King D. Luís. As well as the Passeio Visconde Nossa Senhora da Luz (now a Park), where contact with nature was an opportunity for socialising, in 1869, the town was served by Teatro Gil Vicente (Gil Vicente Theatre).

Theatre and Royal Palace
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Summer Architecture - Palmela House
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Given the shortage of housing with the conditions required by summer season tourists, accustomed to the comforts of the capital, new houses were built, which became a calling card for Cascais and giving rise to so-called Summer Architecture. The features of this style of architecture include a exible set of constructive and decorative options marked by the eclecticism of the time. These distinguished summer homes from housing in the city, tailoring them for relaxation and enjoyment of nature and transforming the homes into spaces where exoticism and extravagance so often worked to build a magical place. Among its early and most emblematic examples are Casa Palmela (Palmela House), designed in 1871, and Casa Loulé (Loulé House), which was completed in 1873, and whose construction and decorative options distinguish them from the rest of the city’s housing. Built on the old 17 century bastion of Nossa Senhora da Conceição by the Dukes of Palmela, this house is one of the most renowned piece of summer architecture in Cascais. Its project was designed between 1870 and 1871 by English architect Thomas Henry Wyatt who, according to its commissioners, opted for neo-Gothic revivalist aesthetics that earned the house the nickname of Abadia (Abbey). Several choices made this option a reality: the use of stone covering all elevations and edging the house’s angles, windows and doors; the simple mouldings that separate its oors; the sloping roofs that shape the various wings of the house, adding a diversity of compositional shapes to its apparent asymmetry; the austerity of the Gothic revival portal; and the overall height of the building highlighted by dormers and the elongated rectangular windows and doors that underline an expressive sense of architecture of the interior. The Gothic revival features and the spirituality of the building were added to, in the 1880s, by the construction of the chapel, designed by architect José António Gaspar, and later altered by architect José Luís Monteiro.

Summer Architecture - Palmela House
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Summer Architecture - Santa Maria House
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Also ordered to be built by Jorge O’Neill in 1902, near the Farol de Santa Narta (Santa Marta Lighthouse), its project, designed by Raul Lino, was moulded to the landscape of this extraordinary place opening out to an almost domesticated sea of gushing blue light, where the architect translates his own re ection of the traditional architecture of the south, indebted to Mediterranean culture and with strong Moorish in uences. In 1918, the house was expanded to accom- modate an extraordinary collection of late 17th century tiles from a demolished chapel. In this period, Raul Lino had already uni ed his formal and aesthetic research in the synthesis of “Casa Portuguesa,” (The Portuguese House) which he considered to be a vital model for national domestic architecture. He divided the wings of the house and added windows and doors, porches and roofs, also adding to its line of arches, increasing the height of the chimneys, the fresco “tower” and added a picturesque pigeon loft. In 2004, the Câmara Municipal de Cascais (County of Cascais) purchased the property from the Espírito Santo family and turned it into a cultural facility for public enjoyment. Este palacete, que Jorge O’Neill mandou construir no início do século XX, consti- tui um exemplo de ecletismo, uni cador de várias linguagens arquitetónicas, que lhe conferem um enorme sentido de monumentalidade. Com desenho executado em 1897 pelo cenógrafo Luigi Manini, viria a ser efetivamente projetado, cerca de 1900, pelo pintor Francisco Vilaça, imprimindo-lhe um carácter cenográ co que se enquadra na paisagem e concentra nas fachadas-cenário todo o esforço decorativo. A propriedade viria, depois, a ser adquirida pelo Conde de Castro Guimarães, que, por testamento, a doou ao Município de Cascais para a instalação de um Museu-Biblioteca, inaugurado em 1932. Apresenta planta irregular, em que se destaca o claustro e a torre, de poderoso embasamento, pontuada por elementos manuelinos e terminando em cobertura cónica, sobre o último piso, dotado de pequenas varandas panorâmicas. Merecem, ainda, especial destaque o jardim de cariz romântico, dotado de lago, caminhos sinuosos e fontes decoradas com painéis de azulejo do século XVIII, cuja temática aponta para a proveniência de um extinto convento. O conjunto é, ainda, comple- tado pela Capela de S. Sebastião, que remonta ao século XVI, na qual se destaca o invulgar frontal do altar-mor, de azulejo gurado policromo, azul e amarelo, representando S. Sebastião. This small palace, built at the behest of Jorge O’Neill in the early 20th century, is an example of eclecticism, unifying various architectural lan- guages that give it a great sense of monumentality. It was drafted in 1897 by set designer Luigi Manini, and was eventually fully designed, circa 1900, by the painter Francisco Vilaça, giving it a scenic character that ts the landscape and focuses all its decorative efforts on the scenic facades. The property would later be acquired by the Count of Castro Guimarães, who donated to the County of Cascais in his will to install a museum-library, opened in 1932. Its layout is irregular and highlights the cloister and the tower, with powerful foundations, punctuated by Manueline parts and topped with a conical roof on the upper oor, which has small panoramic balconies. The palace’s romantic gardens are also worthy of note with a lake, meandering paths and fountains decorated with 18th century tile panels depicting the origins of an extinct convent. The buildings are also complemented by the Chapel of St. Sebastian, dating back to the 16th century, whose main altar has an unusual frontage of multi-coloured tiles, predominantly in blues and yellows, depicting St. Sebastian. CASA DE SANTA MARIA SANTA MARIA HOUSE TORRE DE S. SEBASTIÃO S. SEBASTIÃO TOWER

Summer Architecture - S. Sebastião Tower
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This small palace, built at the behest of Jorge O’Neill in the early 20th century, is an example of eclecticism, unifying various architectural lan- guages that give it a great sense of monumentality. It was drafted in 1897 by set designer Luigi Manini, and was eventually fully designed, circa 1900, by the painter Francisco Vilaça, giving it a scenic character that ts the landscape and focuses all its decorative efforts on the scenic facades. The property would later be acquired by the Count of Castro Guimarães, who donated to the County of Cascais in his will to install a museum-library, opened in 1932. Its layout is irregular and highlights the cloister and the tower, with powerful foundations, punctuated by Manueline parts and topped with a conical roof on the upper oor, which has small panoramic balconies. The palace’s romantic gardens are also worthy of note with a lake, meandering paths and fountains decorated with 18th century tile panels depicting the origins of an extinct convent. The buildings are also complemented by the Chapel of St. Sebastian, dating back to the 16th century, whose main altar has an unusual frontage of multi-coloured tiles, predominantly in blues and yellows, depicting St. Sebastian.

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Fortification layout
The oval layout of the fortification was later depicted by Georg Braun and Frans Hogenberg in 1572 in the first volume of Civitates Orbis Terrarum, in a beautiful etching that appears to depict the town at the beginning of the century. The castle’s seven towers were supported next to Praia da Ribeira by a barbican that defended the only gate in the wall included in the picture, although there must have been others that were only shown in plans from the end of that century. Two buildings were included in the south tower, probably the houses of the Lord of Cascais. These would later become the palace that King D. Filipe I enjoyed so much when he visited in 1581. The castle and palace were badly affected by the 1755 earthquake and by subsequent urban development. To this day, however, you can see some parts of the old wall, whose initial perimeter is outlined in current cartography.
Castle
Panoramic view of Cascais
Religious Architecture - Church of Nossa Senhora da Assunção
In 1527 around 600 to 1 000 people lived in the town and between 1 200 and 1 900 in the rest of the county. Among the architectural evidence of that era the religious buildings are the most obvious due to their grandeur, wealth and history. Although often rebuilt or changed at later dates they include Igreja de Nossa Senhora da Assunção (Church of Nossa Senhora da Assunção) and Capela de S. Sebastião (Chapel of São Sebastião), in Cascais. The architectural elements reused in Igreja de S. Vicente de Alcabideche (Church of S. Vicente de Alcabideche) stand testimony to its ancient foundation, as do the latch vaults of Igreja de S. Domingos de Rana (Church of S. Domingos de Rana). It is also worth mentioning Capela de Nossa Senhora da Conceição da Abóboda (Chapel of Nossa Senhora da Conceição of Abóboda), which preserves the more beautiful armoured stone of the county, founded in 1529, as well as the Igreja e Convento de Santo António do Estoril (Church and Convent of Santo António do Estoril), founded in 1527 by the Franciscan friars on the chapel of S. Roque, with a tombstone of Roque Lopes, pilot of the Route to the Indies and other grave stones dating from the late 16th century. The Ermida de Nossa Senhora da Guia (Chapel of Nossa Senhora da Guia) is another example of the 16th century religious architecture of the council, erected next to the Lighthouse which was already working in 1537, to warn navigators of the dangers of the coast. This structure, mentioned by Damião de Góis, in 1554, thus became, one of the icons of the coast of Cascais, whose inlet was described as the “place where the cargo ships, anchored in large and secure ports, wait for the tide and monsoon”, despite the stories of shipwrecks which are very much part of the history of the region... During this period, the strengthening of social bonds between the community led to the founding of brotherhoods and sisterhoods acting as mutual aid as- sociations, of material and/or spiritual nature, of which Santa Casa da Misericór- dia of Cascais, founded on 11th June, 1551, is the most important example in the county. To this end, the fraternity built a hospital, next to Igreja da Misericórdia (Misericórdia Church), which remained in activity until 1942, on the occasion of the inauguration of the Condes de Castro Guimarães Hospital. In 1594 the construction of Convento de Nossa Senhora da Piedade (Convent of Nossa Senhora da Piedade) in Cascais, was initiated, under the patronage of Lord of Cascais, D. António de Castro, 4th Count of Monsanto, and his wife, D. Inês Pi- mentel. Finally, Igreja de Nossa Senhora dos Remédios (Church of Nossa Senhora dos Remédios) in Carcavelos should be noted. Founded before the earthquake of 1755, it is another jewel of the county’s religious architecture, continuing to be marked by the ancient urban fabric of the town. Although the actual date of its foundation is unknown, this is the town’s most emblematic church and the one that relates most to its medieval past, as evidenced by the disc-shaped steles rescued from its churchyard. Of the presumable wealth that the church boasted in the 16th century, there is a remarkable set of old paintings, from c. 1520-25, attributable to the Master of Lourinhã, made up of four “primitive” paintings on oak. Certainly of the old main altarpiece, depicting the Nativity, the Adoration of the Magi, the Virgin of the Annunciation and the Archangel Gabriel are from this time. The church also has a number of notable 16th century paintings created by Josefa d’Óbidos between 1672 and 1673 for Convento da Piedade (Piedade Convent), which were moved to the main church after the abolition of the convents, and the Last Supper, painted by Pedro Alexandrino de Carvalho for the Capela do Santíssimo Sacramento (Santíssimo Sacramento Chapel), the brotherhood that funded reconstruction of the church after the 1755 earthquake. Another of the church’s treasures is the complete tile covering of the south sacristy walls, dating from 1720 and stylistically attributed to the Master P.M.P. Its panels, which are thematically unique and very learned, depict themes from the Old Testa- ment, taken from Exodus, the Book of Kings and the Book of Joshua, such as the Crossing of the Red Sea and the Ark of the Covenant. The strong compositions must be from one of the main tile production workshops in Lisbon of the reign of King D. João V, and are evidence of the religious fervour and relative nancial af uence of the local shing community, which left evidence of its on a placard above the sacristy doorway. On the nave ceiling the highlight is the central panel, with a painting of The Assumption of Our Lady, created by José Malhoa, dated 1900. The work of Pereira Cão is also represented here in a collection of tiles produced in 1908.
Religious Architecture - Misericórdia Church
Although the date of its foundation is not known, the small chapel dedicated to Santo André (St. Andrew), lined with tiles, which houses the baptismal font, has a tombstone dated 1622. Its antiquity is also attested by the four boards that make up the 16th century altarpiece, from 1590, of the main chapel of the early church, attributed to the painter Cristóvão Vaz: Christ carrying the cross, Resurrection, Our Lady of Mercy and Visitation. In the main chapel, adorned with marbled paint, one can see the painting of the brotherhood’s patron: Nossa Senhora dos Anjos (Our Lady of the Angels), a sculpture in polychrome wood from the late 17th century. Due to the destruction caused by the 1755 earthquake, the building was rebuilt between 1759 and 1781, however, the two side towers of the facade were never nished.
Religious Architecture - Misericórdia Church
Religious Architecture - Misericórdia Church
Religious Architecture - Nossa Senhora da Guia Hermitage
Although the tombstone of António Ribeiro da Fonseca lies under the triumphal arch of this chapel, dated 1577, this building is, of course, older, as evidenced by many Manueline architectural elements. These include the entrance preceded by a porch with three round arches. The main chapel has a remarkable 18th century tile covering up to the height of the windows, representing two scenes: The Birth of Christ and The Assumption of the Virgin. The side altars are covered with 16th century painted tiles, on which are exhibited two paintings on wood depicting the Adoration of the Shepherds and the Adoration of the Magi, by Cristóvão Vaz, which are part of the 16th century altarpiece.
Religious Architecture - Nossa Senhora da Guia Hermitage
Religious Architecture - Nossa Senhora da Guia Hermitage
Religious Architecture - Church and Convent of Santo António of Estoril
The convent was built in the mid 16th century, on land donated in 1527, to Ordem de S. Francisco (Order of Saint Francis), by Luís da Maia. Initially, the church had a single nave. It was later enriched with three altars, notably the one dedicated to Nossa Senhora da Boa Nova. The destruction caused by the 1755 earthquake led to reconstruction of the entire building. Three years later the church’s high altar was completed, as well as the nave, which included three large south-facing windows. In the interior the highlight is the rich tile collection along with two panels anking the door of the church, from the early Rococo period, depicting Saint Anthony’s life. The ceiling, painted by Carlos Bonvalot in 1927, after a re in the church.
Religious Architecture - Church and Convent of Santo António of Estoril
Religious Architecture - Church and Convent of Santo António of Estoril
Religious Architecture - Church of S. Domingos de Rana
Dedicated to S. Domingos de Gusmão (St. Dominic of Gusmão), the old church was referred to as “sacred from time immemorial,” by Friar Luís de Sousa, in 1623. The destruction caused by the 1755 earthquake led to construction of the current church, which was only completed in 1838, the date inscribed on its bell tower. It was a large building and its architecture was consistent with its time and characterised by simple and austere lines, whose decorative details were reserved for the main facade. The ceiling of the church was decorated with a painting by Pedro Alexandrino de Carvalho, which was lost as a result of work carried out in 1964. The most notable works in the church’s remarkable collection include a set of late Mannerist paintings, which are unique in the county, as well as the large panel of the main chapel depicting the Last Supper, created by Pedro Alexandrino de Carvalho.
Religious Architecture - Church of S. Domingos de Rana
Religious Architecture - Church of S. Domingos de Rana
Religious Architecture - Church of S. Vicente de Alcabideche
This church has been part of Alcabideche since the Early Middle Ages, as re ected in the stelae featured on the headstones found in the ancient church cemetery that was partially excavated. The present church is the result of a reconstruction thought to have started in 1759 - the date inscribed on the main door - and must have been completed in 1780, the year to which the Capela das Almas (Almas Chapel) dates. The simplicity of the church is in contrast to the importance of its artistic treasures including the images of Santiago (St. James), S. Sebastião (St. Sebastian) and S. João (St. John), from the late medieval period and the church’s famous treasure built up over centuries in honour of Nossa Senhora do Cabo. This includes a 15th century processional cross, which is now kept at Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga (National Museum of Ancient Art).
Religious Architecture - Church of S. Vicente de Alcabideche
Religious Architecture - Church of S. Vicente de Alcabideche
Religious Architecture - Church of Nossa Senhora dos Remédios
In honour of Nossa Senhora dos Remédios, this church with a 17th century façade has an unusual layout, which contradicts the canonical orientation to the west. It features tile panels, partially by the hand of painter Gabriel del Barco, in 1690, which are considered the most striking example of Hindu in uence in Portuguese Baroque tiling. Plundered of some of its assets during the First Republic, the exceptional tile collection only remained in place because the authorities intervened in 1918. Among its religious artefacts, the Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga (National Museum of Ancient Art) now houses a valuable 18th century monstrance from the church.
Religious Architecture - Church of Nossa Senhora dos Remédios
Religious Architecture - Church of Nossa Senhora dos Remédios
Religious Architecture - Convent of Nossa Senhora da Piedade
The chapel of the Founder or the Proto-Patriarch of the Convent of the Carmelitas Descalços (Barefoot Carmelites), completed in 1641, is the best-preserved part of the original building. The main church also preserves the Latin cross plan, with a slightly protruding transept and a shallow main chapel. The convent buildings have been changed over time, particularly in terms of the cloister and the speci c community spaces into which they converged, and which are only identi able in the archaeological record. They were badly damaged by the 1755 earthquake, continued to house religious people until 1834, when the convents were abolished. Just before 1873, both the building and the extensive westward fence came under the possession of the Viscounts of Gandarinha, who built vacation homes based on pre-existing convent structures. The estate, which ahs been county property since 1977, was reclassi ed to create the Centro Cultural de Cascais (Cascais Cultural Centre) in 2000, designed by architect Jorge Silva.
Religious Architecture - Convent of Nossa Senhora da Piedade
Fortresses
Recognising that the densely populated castle no longer ful lled its military purpose functions, in 1488 at Ponta do Salmodo, King D. João II built “Torre de Cascais (Cascais Tower), with its cellar full of heavy artillery,” and it soon became the town’s main fortress. This structure, a blend of medieval castle and bulwarked fortress, was most valued for its location near the sea, which was why it became known as the Torre de Santo António (Tower of Santo António), as the Estoril Coast was then known. In the early morning of 30th July, 1580, the Spanish army, commanded by the Duke of Alba, landed about 1 500 men between Cape Sanxete and Guia, attacking Cascais, to conquer Lisbon and place Filipe II on the Portuguese throne. The fortress that defended the town was taken the next day, amongst uncontrolled pillaging. On 2nd August, imprisoned D. Diogo de Meneses, the supreme general of the Portuguese troops nominated by D. António, Prior of Crato, was beheaded in Cascais, in a display to show the Portuguese the fate of the adversaries of the future monarch... Aware of the region’s defensive weaknesses, King D. Filipe I of Portugal ordered a survey of Cascais and a coastal chart as far as S. Julião da Barra to be drawn up. These drawings were intended to strengthen the defensive capacities of the Torre de Cascais (Cascais Tower), and its forti cation turned it in the late 16th century, into the Fortaleza de Nossa Senhora da Luz (Fortress of Nossa Senhora da Luz). The fortress is of a triangular shape, unusual in Portugal, which was became part of Cidadela de Cascais (Cascais Citadel) after 1640. The Forte de Santo António da Barra (Fortress of Santo António da Barra) was also built, within a short distance of the future S. João do Estoril, based on a design by Casale in 1590.
Fortress of Nossa Senhora da Luz
Fortress of Santo António da Barra
Fortress of Santo António da Barra
Fortress of Santo António da Barra
Fortresses
Fortresses
After the restoration of independence in 1640, the Portuguese invested in the fortresses of the region which cost them the throne for six decades. Under the direction of D. António Luís de Meneses, Count of Cantanhede - who was in charge of the defence of the Barra do Tejo (Tagus Barra), main capital access door - the existing fortresses were extended and restored, restoring more than a dozen bulwarks between Guincho and Carcavelos, of which forts of S. Jorge de Oitavos and Santa Marta, today turned into a museum are important examples. Among the structures built the Cidadela de Cascais (Cascais Citadel) must be highlighted defence of this strategic coastal point. Although the extension of the previous project goes back to the lipino period, it only seems to gain strength from 1641, under the direction of Simão Mateus and after Philipe Guitau, who succeeded João Pascásio Cosmander and Nicolau de Langres. However in 1675 its walls were still under construction, the set of new fortresses which were then decided to be built were mainly achieved by the end of the 1640s, in view of the structural simplicity adopted.
Fortresses
On 1st November 1755, a violent earthquake devastated the county of Cascais. According to Friar Antonio do Espírito Santo, a religious man who lived in the Convent of Piedade, who described the effects of the cataclysm in the village, the earthquake was felt for nine minutes and transformed “the great town into a callous and cold corpse of what had been and a shattered scene of what it once was.” In 1758, the Curate of the Resurrection of Christ, António Inácio da Costa Godinho, did not hesitate to say that “this was the land that experienced the greatest ruin,” as all the buildings in the county were affected by the earthquake. These included the Churches of Ressurreição, Assunção and Misericórdia and the Convent of Nossa Senhora da Misericórdia, in Cascais, the convent of Santo António, in Estoril, and the Churches of S. Domingos de Rana, S. Vicente de Alcabideche and Nossa Senhora dos Remédios, in Carcavelos. In fact, not even the places of worship escaped the carnage that many believed to have been a divine punishment. The last traces of destruction caused by this earthquake only nally disappeared from the urban fabric in the rst quarter of the 20th century, when the nal section of the ruins of the Palácio dos Marqueses de Cascais (Palace of the Marquises of Cascais) gave rise to the Casa do Conde de Monte Real (House of the Count of Monte Real), next to the bend of Avenida D. Carlos I.
Vernacular Architecture
The privileged geographical location of Cascais, which became a shing port and safe harbour as well as a port for taking on fresh supplies on a regional scale, turned the shermen into one of the symbols of the county. However, for centuries, agriculture was the main activity of its inhabitants, which even today can be seen through facilities such as water mills and mills, which the poet Ibn Mucana mentioned in Alcabideche, in the 11th century. Farm work is associated with the gure of the saloio, heir to the Arab tradition of working the land, which developed a culture of its own, apparent in their cus- toms, beliefs, language and clothing, which also marked the county’s landscape giving rise to a so-called saloia or people’s architecture, and to this day a signi cant number of these houses are still apparent in Manique de Baixo. Solidly built in stone these square homes are usually crowned with a Moorish roof. Whitewashed, with one or two oors or turreted they had a patio nearly always surrounded by dry stone or mortared walls. At the time stone quarrying and cutting were the occupation of a substantial part of the population based on the county’s geological wealth that includes “marbles” known as apinhoado, busano and bastardo and the famous limestone known as Cascais azulino. Vines were the most important crop in the County, due to the renowned Carcavelos wine, internationally known since at least the late 18th century and the rst known export to England in 1673. Among the main farms dedicated to its production were Quinta do Barão (Barão Farm), Nova de Santo António, Alagoa, Bela Vista, Cartaxeira, Lameiro, Pesos, Ribeira, Chaínhos and Samarra. On 30th November 1807 Cascais was occupied by the French troops of Junot, led by the Baron Maurin, who remained here until 2nd September of the following year. Following the signing of the Sintra Treaty, that according to tradition was actually tradition negotiated in Cascais – possibly in the building that was later named Palace of Condes da Guarda – the British eet advanced along the Tagus, to take over the fortresses of Cascais, S. Julião da Barra and Bugio. The primitive nucleus of the town kept its urban fabric almost unchanged since the 15th century until the present time. Despite the expansion that we have witnessed in the 16th and 17th until the fateful year of 1755, after this date there was a period of lethargy, which was accentuated by the extinction of the reli- gious orders and the withdrawal of the 19 Infantry Regiment. The same must have occurred in the places of the interior of the County, but they were certainly less affected by the destruction caused by the earthquake, having been able to ensure the maintenance of traditional activities that since the Middle Ages are their basis for subsistence.
Vernacular Architecture
Vernacular Architecture
Farms and Palaces - Barão Farm
This farm dating back to the 18th century was founded by Jacinto Isidoro de Sousa. His widow sold the property in 1794 to the Baron of Mossâmedes and the farm was notable for its production of the famous wine of Carcavelos. The manor, which dates from the same era, saw successive refurbishments, and a particularly major one in 1944. However its architecture remained unchanged as can be seen in its magni cent tile panels of different styles, which mark the various eras in which work was carried out. With three oors and doors and windows that do not respect the absolute symmetry of the rising elevation, the house is particularly interesting in the south elevation, which has two ights of stairs that converge at a porch with access to the rst oor. The porch is framed by tile panels with polychrome mouldings of Rococo shell motifs and gurative scenes in blue and white. Inside there are tiles of various epochs and styles and two notable panels where grains are highlighted in yellow, within a room entirely dedicated to the theme of the work. The garden to the west of the Manor House has a variety of plant species, of which several are over a hundred years old and that transform this property into a unique space for enjoyment and leisure. over a hundred years old and that transform this property into a unique space for enjoyment and leisure.
Farms and Palaces - Barão Farm
Farms and Palaces - Palace of Condes da Guarda
This palace was built by D. Inês Antónia da Cunha, in the late 18th century, and is one of Cascais’ most emblematic buildings. It is the only piece of secular architecture in Portugal in which religious neoclassical themed panels were applied to its facades. They include the Four Evangelists – St. Mark and St. Matthew, on the main façade and St. Luke and St. John, on the side facade – produced in the Real Fábrica de Louça do Rato (Royal Dishware Factory of Rato) and painted by Francisco de Paula e Oliveira. The building, later known as the Palace of Condes da Guarda as it belonged to this family in the 19th century, would be used for other purposes after its sale in 1917. It served as a casino and lodged several shops and a post of ce, until Cascais Town Hall was set up there in 1940. The work carried out to accommodate the Town Hall included its decoration with tiles painted by Eduardo Leite and produced in the Fábrica de Cerâmica Viúva Lamego (Viúva Lamego Ceramics Factory), recreating a Baroque style, with rural and maritime scenes. The last 18th century staircase decoration of the earlier building was maintained, including the magni cent panel with a gure of invitation. In 1966, the palace was extended, occupying the area where the famous seafood restaurant Marisqueira was located.
Farms and Palaces - Palace of Condes da Guarda
Farms and Palaces
Farms and Palaces - Cascais Palace
The Royal Family’s stay became regular after 1870 after part of the Citadel was adapted into the unpretentious Paço de Cascais (Cascais Palace) to where the Court was moved in mid-September. Thanks to this seasonal presence, the town became the leisure capital of Portugal, introducing and promoting sports such as sailing, rowing, swimming, tennis and football. It was also a pioneer in the dissemination of technological advances as was the case for example in 1878 when the rst public electric lighting demonstration in Portugal was held at the Citadel, on the occasion of the Prince D. Carlos’ birthday.
Farms and Palaces - Cascais Palace
The project to adapt the Cidadela de Cascais (Cascais Citadel) as a seasonal residence for the Portuguese Royal Family, from 1870, was awarded to Joaquim Possidónio Narciso da Silva. To carry it out the architect drew up a connection between Casas do Governador da Cidadela (Houses of the Citadel Governor) and Pavilhão de Sta. Catarina (St. Catarina Pavilion), which bordered the Praça de Armas (Arms Plaza), resizing rooms, decorating halls and salons and creating a banquet hall and a direct link to the high choir of the Capela de Nossa Senhora da Vitória (Chapel of Nossa Senhora da Vitória). Although modest in sise and without the luxuries of other royal palaces, the Cascais Palace had some re nement, especially in its nishes, the use of exceptional materials, and particularly of exotic woods. King D. Luís died in 1889, in the Cascais Palace and was succeeded by King. D. Carlos, who made signi cant changes to the building. He set up the rst Portuguese marine biology laboratory there in 1896, adding a third oor in 1902 for that purpose above the old Santa Catarina Pavilion, which he transformed into his private quarters. After the establishment of the Republic, the Palace started receiving the Presidents of the Republic, and was even the of cial residence of President Óscar Carmona from 1928 to 1945. Carmona ordered work to be carried out several times, including transforming the east-facing terrace into a Winter Garden designed by Duarte Pacheco. After many years of disuse and already in an advanced state of disrepair the Palace underwent in-depth refurbish- ment and restoration between 2007 and 2008, designed by architect Pedro Vaz. The Palace is now an of cial residence of the Portuguese President. Its state and other history- lled rooms are open to guided tours offered by Museu da Presidência da República (Museum of the Presidency).
Farms and Palaces - Cascais Palace
Theatre and Royal Palace
From the mid-19th century, the fashion of sea bathing, based on the idea it was therapeutic, made Cascais’ beaches a favourite destination of the wealthier classes, and later became a leisure activity, as had happened in a number of beach resorts of Europe. However, the real discovery of the area’s coast was mainly due to reconstruction of the road to Oeiras, between 1859 and 1864, which made access to Lisbon easier, and the road to Sintra, completed in 1868. Visiting Cascais became an elitist pastime and for the rst time in September 1867 it was granted the status of the beach of the Court due to Queen D. Maria Pia’s liking for it and, later King D. Luís. As well as the Passeio Visconde Nossa Senhora da Luz (now a Park), where contact with nature was an opportunity for socialising, in 1869, the town was served by Teatro Gil Vicente (Gil Vicente Theatre).
Theatre and Royal Palace
Summer Architecture - Palmela House
Given the shortage of housing with the conditions required by summer season tourists, accustomed to the comforts of the capital, new houses were built, which became a calling card for Cascais and giving rise to so-called Summer Architecture. The features of this style of architecture include a exible set of constructive and decorative options marked by the eclecticism of the time. These distinguished summer homes from housing in the city, tailoring them for relaxation and enjoyment of nature and transforming the homes into spaces where exoticism and extravagance so often worked to build a magical place. Among its early and most emblematic examples are Casa Palmela (Palmela House), designed in 1871, and Casa Loulé (Loulé House), which was completed in 1873, and whose construction and decorative options distinguish them from the rest of the city’s housing. Built on the old 17 century bastion of Nossa Senhora da Conceição by the Dukes of Palmela, this house is one of the most renowned piece of summer architecture in Cascais. Its project was designed between 1870 and 1871 by English architect Thomas Henry Wyatt who, according to its commissioners, opted for neo-Gothic revivalist aesthetics that earned the house the nickname of Abadia (Abbey). Several choices made this option a reality: the use of stone covering all elevations and edging the house’s angles, windows and doors; the simple mouldings that separate its oors; the sloping roofs that shape the various wings of the house, adding a diversity of compositional shapes to its apparent asymmetry; the austerity of the Gothic revival portal; and the overall height of the building highlighted by dormers and the elongated rectangular windows and doors that underline an expressive sense of architecture of the interior. The Gothic revival features and the spirituality of the building were added to, in the 1880s, by the construction of the chapel, designed by architect José António Gaspar, and later altered by architect José Luís Monteiro.
Summer Architecture - Palmela House
Summer Architecture - Santa Maria House
Also ordered to be built by Jorge O’Neill in 1902, near the Farol de Santa Narta (Santa Marta Lighthouse), its project, designed by Raul Lino, was moulded to the landscape of this extraordinary place opening out to an almost domesticated sea of gushing blue light, where the architect translates his own re ection of the traditional architecture of the south, indebted to Mediterranean culture and with strong Moorish in uences. In 1918, the house was expanded to accom- modate an extraordinary collection of late 17th century tiles from a demolished chapel. In this period, Raul Lino had already uni ed his formal and aesthetic research in the synthesis of “Casa Portuguesa,” (The Portuguese House) which he considered to be a vital model for national domestic architecture. He divided the wings of the house and added windows and doors, porches and roofs, also adding to its line of arches, increasing the height of the chimneys, the fresco “tower” and added a picturesque pigeon loft. In 2004, the Câmara Municipal de Cascais (County of Cascais) purchased the property from the Espírito Santo family and turned it into a cultural facility for public enjoyment. Este palacete, que Jorge O’Neill mandou construir no início do século XX, consti- tui um exemplo de ecletismo, uni cador de várias linguagens arquitetónicas, que lhe conferem um enorme sentido de monumentalidade. Com desenho executado em 1897 pelo cenógrafo Luigi Manini, viria a ser efetivamente projetado, cerca de 1900, pelo pintor Francisco Vilaça, imprimindo-lhe um carácter cenográ co que se enquadra na paisagem e concentra nas fachadas-cenário todo o esforço decorativo. A propriedade viria, depois, a ser adquirida pelo Conde de Castro Guimarães, que, por testamento, a doou ao Município de Cascais para a instalação de um Museu-Biblioteca, inaugurado em 1932. Apresenta planta irregular, em que se destaca o claustro e a torre, de poderoso embasamento, pontuada por elementos manuelinos e terminando em cobertura cónica, sobre o último piso, dotado de pequenas varandas panorâmicas. Merecem, ainda, especial destaque o jardim de cariz romântico, dotado de lago, caminhos sinuosos e fontes decoradas com painéis de azulejo do século XVIII, cuja temática aponta para a proveniência de um extinto convento. O conjunto é, ainda, comple- tado pela Capela de S. Sebastião, que remonta ao século XVI, na qual se destaca o invulgar frontal do altar-mor, de azulejo gurado policromo, azul e amarelo, representando S. Sebastião. This small palace, built at the behest of Jorge O’Neill in the early 20th century, is an example of eclecticism, unifying various architectural lan- guages that give it a great sense of monumentality. It was drafted in 1897 by set designer Luigi Manini, and was eventually fully designed, circa 1900, by the painter Francisco Vilaça, giving it a scenic character that ts the landscape and focuses all its decorative efforts on the scenic facades. The property would later be acquired by the Count of Castro Guimarães, who donated to the County of Cascais in his will to install a museum-library, opened in 1932. Its layout is irregular and highlights the cloister and the tower, with powerful foundations, punctuated by Manueline parts and topped with a conical roof on the upper oor, which has small panoramic balconies. The palace’s romantic gardens are also worthy of note with a lake, meandering paths and fountains decorated with 18th century tile panels depicting the origins of an extinct convent. The buildings are also complemented by the Chapel of St. Sebastian, dating back to the 16th century, whose main altar has an unusual frontage of multi-coloured tiles, predominantly in blues and yellows, depicting St. Sebastian. CASA DE SANTA MARIA SANTA MARIA HOUSE TORRE DE S. SEBASTIÃO S. SEBASTIÃO TOWER
Summer Architecture - S. Sebastião Tower
This small palace, built at the behest of Jorge O’Neill in the early 20th century, is an example of eclecticism, unifying various architectural lan- guages that give it a great sense of monumentality. It was drafted in 1897 by set designer Luigi Manini, and was eventually fully designed, circa 1900, by the painter Francisco Vilaça, giving it a scenic character that ts the landscape and focuses all its decorative efforts on the scenic facades. The property would later be acquired by the Count of Castro Guimarães, who donated to the County of Cascais in his will to install a museum-library, opened in 1932. Its layout is irregular and highlights the cloister and the tower, with powerful foundations, punctuated by Manueline parts and topped with a conical roof on the upper oor, which has small panoramic balconies. The palace’s romantic gardens are also worthy of note with a lake, meandering paths and fountains decorated with 18th century tile panels depicting the origins of an extinct convent. The buildings are also complemented by the Chapel of St. Sebastian, dating back to the 16th century, whose main altar has an unusual frontage of multi-coloured tiles, predominantly in blues and yellows, depicting St. Sebastian.
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